The brain is created with a self-regulating mechanism to manage the discharge of electrical signals in the brain and fix manageable lapses in the normal functioning of the brain. But during seizures, this auto regulation and the limits it has set are broken down resulting into rapid firing and abnormal impulse transmission within the brain.
We would then ask what causes the malfunctioning of this self-regulation in the brain.
What are seizures causes?
There are many identified causes of seizures and may range from anything that would cause alteration in the structure of the brain or may incite these changes in the electrical activity of the brain. A common cause of seizures is the presence of other medical conditions which may directly affect the nervous system such as neurologic problems like multiple sclerosis, Huntington's disease, encephalitis, meningitis, stroke or transient ischemic attacks. These medical conditions result in the damage of the neurons and brain structures or alteration in the blood flow to the brain.
Accidents from motor or vehicles, falls, hitting, contact sports or invasive medical/ surgical procedures may lead to traumatic brain injury and leads to development of seizures due to direct assault in the brain structures. Even blunt forces or those which do not show overt damage to the head can cause internal bleeding, and this blood contains some ions like iron which may interfere with the electrical activity in the brain causing seizures. But, it can also be noted that the seizures do not appear immediately after trauma and may take weeks or months before seizures manifest.
However, there are also conditions which do not directly influence brain chemistry and electrical activity but their pathological processes are known seizures causes. This include metabolic problems such as phenylketonuria, renal and hepatic failure which causes retention of toxic by products in the body such as ammonia and phenylalanine, and this impairs brain functioning and later cause seizures.
Conditions that cause electrolyte imbalances lead to an alteration in the normal impulse transmission not only in the brain but also in other parts of the body due to changes in concentration of electrical charges from ions. Abnormally low blood sugar or hypoglycemia, and illnesses with infectious origin may also lead to seizure episodes.
Among children, contracting a very high grade fever or an increased concentration of water in the body are the common seizures causes. In late adults, the presence of disorders that result in degeneration of the neurons such as Alzheimer's disease and cerebrovascular accidents are the common causes of this problem.
Substance abuse may it be alcoholic beverages or use of prohibited medications such as cocaine, amphetamines and depressants may also lead to seizure due to overdose of these substances to harmful levels. Use or withdrawal of medications like sedatives and analgesics may also cause episodes of seizures due to the sudden response of the body to the presence of these drugs in the body.
Any event or medical condition that causes damage in the brain is possible seizure causes. Identifying and understanding these different causes of seizures is crucial in finding ways to resolve and manage them.